essay biology human welfare

appealing to those who have a dislike for the idea of the "selfish gene mistakenly confusing that notion with the idea of selfish individuals. Belknap Press of Harvard University Press. "Do not steal a clan member's cattle, but the cattle of other clans are for brave men to steal" or "Do not steal the cattle of someone from your tribe, but the cattle of other tribes are for brave men to steal". Greco-Roman monogamy in global context.

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So, a group of selfish agents will be better off than a group of agents built morgan essay upon law of evidence by within-group natural selection. In verbal descriptions, when the between-group component of natural selection influences the evolutionary process, this is "group selection". The old metaphor of the 'superorganism' has some applicability to a beehive, and the worker bees are partially comparable to the cells of an individual lion. The individual acts in a way that (on average) makes her better off, with increasing group welfare just being a means through which individual welfare (approximately, inclusive fitness) is increased. However, by using the same terms to describe biological and cultural evolutionary processes, we increase the risk of the two processes being confused with one another. In other words, cultural evolution leads to genetic evolution. If between-group selection prevails, then the altruistic allele has the highest average effect and evolves in the total gene pool. Let's pause now to consider some issues where people seem to be talking at cross-purposes. But suppose a few innovative members of the population introduce fitness-enhancing variation at a faster, but still low, rate compared to random variation. 19 ( Johnson, 2004 ). The comb and even the swarm might be regarded as an extended phenotype of bee genes. 3 Richerson and Boyd 2005.

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essay biology human welfare

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